Istanbul - Nonwestern countries are usually judged
in terms of their distance from "modernity." Modernity appears
in these societies more as an aspiration than as an indigenous reality.
It is something, like a level of consumption, that is to be attained.
The absence of modernity is a gap to be filled. Modernity is not conceived
as an intrinsic part of their historical and social reality, but as something
external and alien to the customary practice of daily life as well as