Today's date:
Winter 1998

The End of Expansion

Hans-Heinrich Nolte, the German historian, is author of Internal Peripheries. Adapted from remarks at the Forum 2000 meeting in Prague in September.

Prague - During the Middle Ages, Europeans developed a peculiar form of society. The attempt to unite all Christians within one empire failed. The "Holy Roman Empire" did not encompass all kingdoms. Yet, "Imperium et Sacerdotium, Regna et Terrae" did not just form a cluster of big and small states, but were bound together by common rules - not only the rules of the Church, but also the knighthood and of Roman law.

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